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|The Particle at the End of the Universe: How the Hunt for the Higgs Boson Leads Us to the Edge of a New World
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Author: Sean Carroll
Brand: Brand: Plume
Winner of the prestigious 2013 Royal Society Winton Prize for Science Books
“A modern voyage of discovery.” —Frank Wilczek, Nobel Laureate, author of The Lightness of Being
The Higgs boson is one of our era’s most fascinating scientific frontiers and the key to understanding why mass exists. The most recent book on the subject, The God Particle, was a bestseller. Now, Caltech physicist Sean Carroll documents the doorway that is opening—after billions of dollars and the efforts of thousands of researchers at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland—into the mind-boggling world of dark matter. The Particle at the End of the Universe has it all: money and politics, jealousy and self-sacrifice, history and cutting-edge physics—all grippingly told by a rising star of science writing.
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|The Physics and Technology of Ion Sources
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The first edition of this title has become a well-known reference book on ion sources. The field is evolving constantly and rapidly, calling for a new, up-to-date version of the book. In the second edition of this significant title, editor Ian Brown, himself an authority in the field, compiles yet again articles written by renowned experts covering various aspects of ion source physics and technology. The book contains full chapters on the plasma physics of ion sources, ion beam formation, beam transport, computer modeling, and treats many different specific kinds of ion sources in sufficient detail to serve as a valuable reference text.
|Energy Stabilization of Electrostatic Accelerators
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Author: Jenõ Takács
Electrostatic accelerators, such as the Van de Graaf generator, are among the most established and well-developed particle accelerators. One of the key issues in the maturation of these accelerators has been the development of methods used to stabilize the energies of the particles they produce. Energy Stabilization of Electrostatic Accelerators presents a comprehensive overview of the key methods of stabilizing the energy of ions produced by electrostatic accelerators. After giving comprehensive background information on the subject, it explains the basis of high voltage generation, covering both the Van de Graaf charge transfer and the Crockcroft Walton voltage multiplier principle. This is followed by a description of the various methods used to detect the fluctuation in the energy of the accelerated ions. The later chapters describe the various ways used to stabilize the energy of the ions, gradually leading the reader to models of more complicated multi-loop stabilizers, composed from the simple models derived in the previous chapters. Some of the information on the mathematical modeling of physical phenomena applied in the stabilization has not been published before. Also featured is a whole chapter devoted to the problem of modulating the energy of the ions to a predetermined way. Energy Stabilization of Electrostatic Accelerators has been written with the accelerator designer and user in mind, but will also prove extremely useful to researchers and graduate students engaged in accelerator-based research, both pure and applied, whose interests lie in improving accelerator performance. It assumes only a basic knowledge of feedback and control system theory and Laplace transformation, which makes it readily understandable for any readers with physics and electronic engineering backgrounds.
|The Quantum Frontier: The Large Hadron Collider
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Author: Don Lincoln
The highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider runs under the border between France and Switzerland. It leapt into action on September 10, 2008, amid unprecedented global press coverage and widespread fears that its energy would create tiny black holes that could destroy the earth.
By smashing together particles smaller than atoms, the LHC recreates the conditions hypothesized to have existed just moments after the big bang. Physicists expect it to aid our understanding of how the universe came into being and to show us much about the standard model of particle physics―even possibly proving the existence of the mysterious Higgs boson. In exploring what the collider does and what it might find, Don Lincoln explains what the LHC is likely to teach us about particle physics, including uncovering the nature of dark matter, finding micro black holes and supersymmetric particles, identifying extra dimensions, and revealing the origin of mass in the universe.
Thousands of physicists from around the globe will have access to the LHC, none of whom really knows what outcomes will be produced by the $7.7 billion project. Whatever it reveals, the results arising from the Large Hadron Collider will profoundly alter our understanding of the cosmos and the atom and stimulate amateur and professional scientists for years to come.
|Impedances and Wakes in High-Energy Particle Accelerators
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Author: Bruno W. Zotter
Modern particle accelerators and storage rings, whether used for high-energy physics, synchrotron light sources, or other purposes, require particle beams with the highest possible intensity. In order to achieve this maximum performance, a good understanding of the interaction of the charged particle beams with the surrounding vacuum chamber and other accelerator components is necessary. In the frequency domain, this interaction can be described by impedances, and equivalently by wake fields in the time domain. These need to be known to estimate the thresholds of coherent instabilities, or other collective effects, which limit the achievable beam current. Such considerations have to be taken into account already during the design of such machines, as they limit the choice of materials and the shapes of components required for their operations.The book explains the basic concepts, and the methods which have been used to calculate impedances and wakes. The emphasis is on circular particle accelerators and storage rings, with which the authors are more familiar, but many of these concepts are equally useful in linear accelerators or colliders. Without any pretense of completeness, the most important accelerator components, such as vacuum chambers with bellows and pumping ports, RF and other cavities, single steps, irises and collimators, etc. are described in specialised chapters. Also limitations and restrictions of the impedance and wake field descriptions are discussed. The book is mainly written for physicists working with or on particle accelerators or storage rings, and who want to understand the methods which have been used for such calculations.
|Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering (2nd Edition)
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Author: Alexander Wu Chao
Edited by internationally recognized authorities in the field, this expanded and updated new edition of the bestselling Handbook, containing more than 100 new articles, is aimed at the design and operation of modern particle accelerators. It is intended as a vade mecum for professional engineers and physicists engaged in these subjects. With a collection of more than 2000 equations, 300 illustrations and 500 graphs and tables, here one will find, in addition to the common formulae of previous compilations, hard-to-find, specialized formulae, recipes and material data pooled from the lifetime experience of many of the world's most able practitioners of the art and science of accelerators.
The eight chapters include both theoretical and practical matters as well as an extensive glossary of accelerator types. Chapters on beam dynamics and electromagnetic and nuclear interactions deal with linear and nonlinear single particle and collective effects including spin motion, beam-environment, beam-beam, beam-electron, beam-ion and intrabeam interactions. The impedance concept and related calculations are dealt with at length as are the instabilities associated with the various interactions mentioned. A chapter on operational considerations includes discussions on the assessment and correction of orbit and optics errors, real-time feedbacks, generation of short photon pulses, bunch compression, tuning of normal and superconducting linacs, energy recovery linacs, free electron lasers, cooling, space-charge compensation, brightness of light sources, collider luminosity optimization and collision schemes. Chapters on mechanical and electrical considerations present material data and important aspects of component design including heat transfer and refrigeration. Hardware systems for particle sources, feedback systems, confinement and acceleration (both normal conducting and superconducting) receive detailed treatment in a subsystems chapter, beam measurement techniques and apparatus being treated therein as well. The closing chapter gives data and methods for radiation protection computations as well as much data on radiation damage to various materials and devices.
A detailed name and subject index is provided together with reliable references to the literature where the most detailed information available on all subjects treated can be found.
Readership: Physicists, engineers and practitioners in accelerator science.
|Introduction To The Physics Of Particle Accelerators
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Author: Mario Conte
Brand: Brand: World Scientific Publishing Company
This book provides a concise and coherent introduction to the physics of particle accelerators, with attention being paid to the design of an accelerator for use as an experimental tool. In the second edition, new chapters on spin dynamics of polarized beams as well as instrumentation and measurements are included, with a discussion of frequency spectra and Schottky signals. The additional material also covers quadratic Lie groups and integration highlighting new techniques using Cayley transforms, detailed estimation of collider luminosities, and new problems.
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|Anomaly! Collider Physics and the Quest for New Phenomena at Fermilab
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Author: Tommaso Dorigo
From the mid-1980s, an international collaboration of 600 physicists embarked on the investigation of subnuclear physics at the high-energy frontier. As well as discovering the top quark, the heaviest elementary particle ever observed, the physicists analyzed their data to seek signals of new physics which could revolutionize our understanding of nature.
Anomaly! tells the story of that quest, and focuses specifically on the finding of several unexplained effects which were unearthed in the process. These anomalies proved highly controversial within the large team: to some collaborators they called for immediate publication, while to others their divulgation threatened to jeopardize the reputation of the experiment.
Written in a confidential, narrative style, this book looks at the sociology of a large scientific collaboration, providing insight in the relationships between top physicists at the turn of the millennium. The stories offer an insider's view of the life cycle of the "failed" discoveries that unavoidably accompany even the greatest endeavors in modern particle physics.
Readership: General readers interested in physics and the Fermilab experiments, graduate and undergraduate students in physics, researchers, scientific historians and physicists from other fields.
|Collider: The Search for the World's Smallest Particles
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Author: Paul Halpern
An accessible look at the hottest topic in physics and the experiments that will transform our understanding of the universe
The biggest news in science today is the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle-smasher, and the anticipation of finally discovering the Higgs boson particle. But what is the Higgs boson and why is it often referred to as the God Particle? Why are the Higgs and the LHC so important? Getting a handle on the science behind the LHC can be difficult for anyone without an advanced degree in particle physics, but you don't need to go back to school to learn about it. In Collider, award-winning physicist Paul Halpern provides you with the tools you need to understand what the LHC is and what it hopes to discover.
- Comprehensive, accessible guide to the theory, history, and science behind experimental high-energy physics
- Explains why particle physics could well be on the verge of some of its greatest breakthroughs, changing what we think we know about quarks, string theory, dark matter, dark energy, and the fundamentals of modern physics
- Tells you why the theoretical Higgs boson is often referred to as the God particle and how its discovery could change our understanding of the universe
- Clearly explains why fears that the LHC could create a miniature black hole that could swallow up the Earth amount to a tempest in a very tiny teapot
- ""Best of 2009 Sci-Tech Books (Physics)""-Library Journal
- ""Halpern makes the search for mysterious particles pertinent and exciting by explaining clearly what we don't know about the universe, and offering a hopeful outlook for future research.""-Publishers Weekly
- Includes a new author preface, ""The Fate of the Large Hadron Collider and the Future of High-Energy Physics""
The world will not come to an end any time soon, but we may learn a lot more about it in the blink of an eye. Read Collider and find out what, when, and how.
Top Ten Ways the Large Hadron Collider Could Revolutionize the World of Science 1. Solve the riddle of dark matter: the elusive invisible substance that helps steer the outer stars of galaxies and bind galaxies into clusters. The LHC could produce particles massive enough to explain this mystery. 2. Complete the puzzle of the Standard Model: the theory uniting two of the four known forces of nature, electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Based on what turns up in the LHC decay products, this model could be confirmed or need to be modified. 3. Identify the God Particle: more formally known as the Higgs boson. The Higgs is part of a mechanism that explains how the particles that make up matter acquired mass in the early universe, while photons, the carriers of light, remained massless. The mass of the Higgs, if it were found, would help indicate whether the Standard Model is fine as it stands or requires adjustment. 4. Reproduce some of the intense conditions of the Big Bang: the fiery, highly-compact state of the primordial cosmos. One of the specialized detectors at the LHC, called ALICE, will study quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that existed in the first microseconds of the universe. At that point its temperature was so high that the quarks and gluons that would later form elementary particles such as protons and neutrons were free to move. 5. Explain the universe’s shortage of antimatter: the oppositely-charged counterparts of electrons, protons and other particles. The LHCb, another specialized detector at the LHC, is designed to look for imbalances in certain types of decays that could elucidate how the balance of a harmonious early state of the universe came to tilt in the direction of far more matter than antimatter. 6. Generate miniature black holes: hypothetical incredibly dense states of matter analogous to some of the intense gravitational conditions of the collapsed cores of massive stars. No worries, however; these would decay almost immediately into various particles before presenting even the slimmest chance of harming the Earth. 7. Reveal gateways to higher dimensions: unseen paths beyond ordinary space and time. Certain theories justify why gravity is so much weaker than the other natural forces by positing that gravity particles leak into an extra dimension that ordinary matter and light cannot penetrate. Investigators at the LHC will search for evidence of such invisible channels. 8. Unify matter and forces through supersymmetry: a hypothesis asserting that each matter particle has a counterpart in the world of forces, and each force carrier, a companion in the realm of matter. The LHC will search for the least massive superpartners of conventional particles. The verification of supersymmetry would be an extraordinarily important step toward a theory of everything. 9. Predict the ultimate fate of the cosmos: Recent astronomical discoveries have indicated that space is accelerating in its expansion. The nature of any massive particles found at the LHC could help scientists unravel the properties of this dark energy and thereby determine what will ultimately happen to the universe. 10. Inspire new generations: to pursue careers in physics and carry on the search for the ultimate theory of nature. The shining example of discoveries at the LHC would illuminate a path for future scientists to follow.
Content from Paul Halpern
Browse Photos of the Collider (Click on image to enlarge)
|Novel Radiation Sources Using Relativistic Electrons, from Infrared to X-Rays: F Rom Infrared to X-Rays (Series on Synchrotron Radiation Techniques and Applications)
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The purpose of this book is to give a description of the state of the art in theoretical and experimental work achieved in radiation source development. It summarizes clearly and comprehensibly, the basic physical aspects needed to understand the phenomena, and also provides the interested reader with sufficient literature to be able to follow the development in more detail. In addition, it contains a unified view of most theoretical effects and their common properties. The most recent developments as well as references to further work can be found in this volume. In many cases, review articles and textbooks published in specialized areas are also incorporated into the text.
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