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|Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume Volume 22
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Author: Author Unknown
This volume covers various physical aspects of a wide range of rare-earth materials. Magnetic phenomena dominate the contents of the first four chapters which deal with thin films and layered structures, and intermetallic and nonmetallic compounds. The remaining two chapters deal with coherent emission and electronic structure calculations of lanthanide molecules.
The first chapter covers the state-of-the-art of the synthesis and properties of thin films of the rare-earth metals and layered superstructures of two rare-earth metals. The following chapter is a review of rare-earth-transition metal nanoscale multilayers and describes the recent advances in our understanding of magnetic structure, interfacial magnetism, and origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of lanthanide-transition-metal nanoscale multilayers. The next chapter deals with one of the important series of rare-earth intermetallic compounds, those which possess the ThNm12-type structure. The authors of the following chapter review the specific magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of certain crystals, which are determined by the localized electronic magnetic moments of the lanthanide ions in the crystal lattice and their interactions with each other and surrounding ions. The chapter on coherent emission differs from other reviews on the subject in that it concentrates on the broader issues. Here the emphasis is on superradiance, superfluorescence, amplification of spontaneous emission by other stimulated emision than the laser effect and coherent spontaneous emission. The final chapter describes the progress that has been made in electronic structure calculations of lanthanide-containing molecules, especially in the last 10 years.
|Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume 28
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Even at the beginning of the new millenium the rare earths still remain, to a certain extent, a mystery. The chapters in this volume will help to unravel some of these. In the filling of the 4f electronic orbitals the lanthanides defy the elementary aufbau principle that underlies the periodic sequence of the elements, and the authors of the first chapter introduce the readers to the basic physics of the orbital collapse leading to that failure. Furthermore an explanation is offered in terms of double-well potentials. The phenomenon is illustrated using the valence transitions observed in some of the rare earth atoms, including Sm group metals and the higher oxides of cerium, praseodymium and terbium. In the second chapter the synthesis and structure of the many types of rare earth halides are described. They have been described as simple, complex, binary, ternary and multinuclear complex, and other categories needed to deal with the most studied of the rare earth compounds. The structure types are skillfully illustrated to show the elementary architecture of each type.
In chapter three the authors discuss the science and applications of rare earth super ionic conductors as solid electrolytes. Conduction by oxygen and fluorine anions as well as hydrogen and other cations associated with these electrolytes is emphasized. They deal with extrinsic and intrinsic types together with their associated structures and structural types including structural defects. The chapter concludes with an outline of the many applications of solid electrolytes.
Chapter four introduces the reader to the principles that underlie thermoluminescence and its application to dosimetry and provides detailed information on the R-activated phosphors that support dosimetry. This is a selective review of detailed literature based on the areas making most progress.
The final chapter elaborates on the data gained by the studies and interpretation around the analytical separation of the individual rare earth elements utilizing chromatographic techniques. The authors describe the fundamental chemistry that underpins contemporary analytical separation techniques for lanthanide separation and analysis. This is done after a description of the rich assortment of separation methods in use has been introduced.
|Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume 26
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Over twenty years since the appearance of volume 1 of this prestigious series, the rare earths continue to perplex, if not mystify us. There is no doubt that in the next breakthrough to a higher level of human understanding of nature, the rare earth elements and their compounds will play an important part in its elaboration. The reviews contained in this 26th volume continue this quest.
Three of the chapters deal with various aspects of the magnetic behaviours of the lanthanide metals and some of their compounds, while the fourth is concerned with the photoelectron spectroscopy of the anomalous f (heavy fermion) systems in cerium and uranium compounds.
The first chapter presents information and results gleaned from X-ray scattering studies on the magnetic lanthanide metals, intra lanthanide alloys, a few intermetallic compounds, intra lanthanide superlayers and thin films.
Chapter two is concerned with the use of static pressure and alternating mechanical stresses and their effects to study the magnetic properties of the lanthanide metals, alloys and compounds.
This is followed by an examination of magnetic systems which are close to the critical conditions for the appearance of magnetic ordering. The authors note that itinerant electron metamagnetism was predicted over 35 years ago, but that the major advances were only discovered over the past decade.
One of the prime research tools for understanding 4f and 5f systems is photoelectron spectroscopy and early work is this field was plagued by the lack of single crystals, the poor quality of polycrystalline samples and inadequate theories to interpret photoelectron spectra. This has however changed, and new developments are reviewed in the last chapter.
|Electronic Structure and the Properties of Solids: The Physics of the Chemical Bond (Dover Books on Physics)
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Author: Walter A. Harrison
Brand: Walter A Harrison
"Should be widely read by practicing physicists, chemists and materials scientists." — Philosophical Magazine
In this comprehensive and innovative text, Professor Harrison (Stanford University) offers a basic understanding of the electronic structure of covalent and ionic solids, simple metals, transition metals, and their compounds. The book illuminates the relationships of the electronic structures of these materials and shows how to calculate dielectric, conducting, and bonding properties for each. Also described are various methods of approximating electronic structure, providing insight and even quantitative results from the comparisons. Dr. Harrison has also included an especially helpful "Solid State Table of the Elements" that provides all the parameters needed to estimate almost any property of any solid, with a hand-held calculator, using the techniques developed in the book.
Designed for graduate or advanced undergraduate students who have completed an undergraduate course in quantum mechanics or atomic and modern physics, the text treats the relation between structure and properties comprehensively for all solids rather than for small classes of solids. This makes it an indispensable reference for all who make use of approximative methods for electronic-structure engineering, semiconductor development and materials science.
The problems at the ends of the chapters are an important aspect of the book. They clearly show that the calculations for systems and properties of genuine and current interest are actually quite elementary. Prefaces. Problems. Tables. Appendixes. Solid State Table of the Elements. Bibliography. Author and Subject Indexes.
"Will doubtless exert a lasting influence on the solid-state physics literature." — Physics Today
- Electronic Structure and the Properties of Solids The Physics of the Chemical Bond
|Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume 25
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Twenty years on and 164 reviews later since the appearance of volume 1 of this prestigious series, the rare earths continue to perplex, if not mystify us. There is no doubt that in the next breakthrough to a higher level of human understanding of nature, the rare earth elements and their compounds will play an important part in its elaboration. The reviews contained in this 25th volume continue this quest.
The first chapter reveals the effects of the addition of the rare earths on steel. These elements were introduced to the steel-making industry in the 1920's to affect deoxidization and desulfurization. Today it is possible to extend their usefulness to provide steels with desired characteristics. The description of why and how additions of the rare earths affect micro- and nano-structures in steels which provide these beneficial modifications is explored.
Chapter two reviews ternary and higher-order nitride materials. The synthesis of ternary compounds is examined and the products are categorized by their composition and the nature of the chemical bonding they exhibit. The structures of the compounds are discussed where possible.
The spectral intensities of f-f transitions in lanthanide compounds are discussed at length in the following chapter. The authors present an exhaustive consideration of the unique appearance of intraconfigurational electronic transitions in f-type materials, particularly the lanthanides.
The final chapter reviews the prodigious literature on the organometallic &pgr; complexes of the f-elements. The authors consider the main classes of complexes of both the lanthanide and actinide organometallics, and synthesis and structure are dealt with in particular.
|001: The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements Volume 1
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Author: J.J. Katz
Brand: J J Katz Glenn Theodore Seaborg L R Morss
The. first edition of this work appeared almost thirty years ago, when, as we can see in retrospect, the study of the actinide elements was in its first bloom. Although the broad features of the chemistry of the actinide elements were by then quite weil delineated, the treatment of the subject in the first edition was of necessity largely descriptive in nature. A detailed understanding ofthe chemical consequences of the characteristic presence of 5f electrons in most of the members ofthe actinide se ries was still for the future, and many ofthe systematic features ofthe actinide elements were only dimly apprehended. In the past thirty years all this has changed. The application of new spectroscopic techniques, which came into general use during this period, and new theoretical insights, which came from a better understanding of chemical bonding, inorganic chemistry, and solid state phenomena, were among the important factors that led to a great expansion and maturation in actinide element research and a large number of new and important findings. The first edition consisted of aserial description of the individual actinide elements, with a single chapter devoted to the six heaviest elements (lawrencium, the heaviest actinide, was yet to be discovered). Less than 15 % of the text was devoted to a consideration of the systematics of the actinide elements.
- The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements
|The Chemical Physics of Surfaces
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Author: S.R. Morrison
Brand: S Roy Morrison
of available information. Even more importantly, some authors who have contributed substantially to an area may have been overlooked. For this I apologize. I have, however, not attempted to trace techniques or observa tions historically, so there is no implication (unless specified) that the authors referred to were or were not the originators of a given method or observation. I would like to acknowledge discussions with co-workers at SFU for input relative to their specialties, to acknowledge the help of students who have pointed out errors and difficulties in the earlier presentation, and to acknowledge the infinite patience of my wife Phyllis while I spent my sabbatical and more in libraries and punching computers. S. Roy Morrison 0 1 Contents Notation XV 1. Introduction 1 1. 1. Surface States and Surface Sites . 1 1. 1. 1. The Chemical versus Electronic Representation of the Surface. 1 1. 1. 2. The Surface State on the Band Diagram 4 1. 1. 3. The Fermi Energy in the Surface State Model. 6 1. 1. 4. Need for Both Surface Site and Surface State Models 6 1. 2. Bonding of Foreign Species to the Solid Surface 7 1. 2. 1. Types of Interaction. 7 1. 2. 2. The Chemical Bond . 10 1. 2. 3. Acid and Basic Surface Sites on Solids . 13 1. 2. 4. Adsorbate Bonding on Various Solid Types. 16 1. 2. 5. Movement of Surface Atoms: Relaxation, Reconstruction, and Relocation .
- The Chemical Physics Of Surfaces
|Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Transport (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics)
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Author: Mario Capitelli
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Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Transport develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation.
The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals.
A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties.
Throughout the book, worked examples are provided to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches.
This book is the second of a series of three published by the Bari group on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics. The first book, Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Thermodynamics, is dedicated to plasma thermodynamics; and the third, Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Kinetics, deals with plasma kinetics.
- Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics
|Ultrafast Phenomena VIII: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference, Antibes Juan-Les-Pins, France, June 8-12, 1992 (Springer Series in Chemical Physics)
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Author: J. L. Martin
Recent improvements in the performance of light sources, i.e., reduction in pulse length and increases in wavelength range and power levels, have led toultrafast technology becoming a basic tool in a wide variety of scientific fields. This book presents the very latest developments in the rapidly rxpanding field of ultrashofrt lase pulses and their applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and artificial devices. It provides the most up-to-date record of current research and references in the field of ultrafast phenomena. Contents: Elementary Dynamics: Chemistry, Biology and Physics - Spectrospcopy and Advances in Measurements - Tools: Sources and Amplifiers - High Intensity and Nonlinear Effects - Semiconductors, Confinement and Opto-Electronics - Biology: Primary Dynamics, Electron and Energy Transfer - Chemistry: Electron and Energy Transfer, and Solvation Dynamics.
|Introduction to Magnetic Resonance
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Author: Alan Carrington
Intended as an introduction to magnetic resonance, but equally useful for physics majors, this book is designed primarily for first-year chemistry graduate students and advanced senior undergraduates. The chief claim is to present, in a clear and concise manner, the most important principles and applications of the two kinds of magnetic resonance: nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.) and electron spin resonance (E.S.R.), both of which depend upon the same fundamental principles. The first text to treat both topics in a single volume, Introduction to Magnetic Resonance also contains the first up-to-date account of triplet state E.S.R. work. Difficult points are not evaded; theory is presented simply. Some knowledge of quantum mechanics and matrix algebra is presupposed; the mathematics is kept as simple as possible. Methods are illustrated with key examples form current research. A well-balanced and coherent account of the subject.
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