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|Surface Analysis - The Principal Techniques
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Surface analysis deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates. How they react, look and function are all of interest to the surface scientists. From the basic principles of surface analysis this book considers the various techniques used to analyse surfaces and the theory required to understand the results. The book begins with a general introduction to the sometimes complex area of surface analysis, and continues with chapters by leading experts on the many different techniques currently used, including, for example, SIMS, ESCA, Auger and vibrational spectroscopy. Anyone with a basic understanding of the subject will discover, in one single volume, the rudiments of any particular technique and the answers to commonly asked questions.
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Author: Elaine M. McCash
A straightforward, uncomplicated, and concept-driven undergraduate-level text covering solid surfaces and their properties on both small and large scales. It looks at how atoms and molecules interact with surfaces and how and why they subsequently react and/or behave. It begins with a discussion of the clean surface, its electronic and structural properties, then goes on to describe adsorption, desorption, reactions and reactivity at the surface, kinetics and thermodynamics, and photochemistry. In the final section, the growth and properties of ultrathin films is introduced.
|Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Fourth Edition (Colloid & Surface Engineering) [Paperback]  4 Ed. Duncan Shaw
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|Theory of Wave Scattering From Random Rough Surfaces,
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Author: James A. Ogilvy
This book provides an up-to-date review of the theories that have been developed for the study of acoustic, elastic and electromagnetic wave scattering from randomly rough surfaces. Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces is the first comprehensive summary, in one volume, of all the intensive studies thta have been undertaken over the last few decades. Emphasis is placed on those theories which lead to soluble equations and which are of practical interest. Experimental data are used to illustrate the usefulness of the different theories, and areas where future progress might be possible are also outlined. After covering some of the problems associated with random rough surfaces the author describes the well-known perturbation and Kirchhoff approaches, showing their regimes of validity. Methods for multiple scattering are then considered, emphasising those techniques which are likely to lead to solutions for problems of practical interest. Further considerations include multiple scales of roughness, surface self-shadowing and field statistics. Numerical simulation techniques are also discussed, showing the power of this approach for solving otherwise intractable problems. These techniques have only recently been developed and have not previously been discussed in book form. Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces will be invaluable to graduate scientists and engineers working on wave scattering from rough surfaces, whether this be for radar, sonar, ultrasonic or optical applications.
|Metal Oxide Chemistry and Synthesis: From Solution to Solid State
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Author: Jean-Pierre Jolivet
Brand: Jean Pierre P Jolivet
The precipitation of metal oxides from aqueous solutions creates nanoparticles with interesting solid state properties, thus building a bridge between solution chemistry and solid state chemistry. This book is the first monograph to deal with the formation of metal oxides from aqueous solutions with emphasis on the formation and physical chemistry of nanoparticles.
Metal Oxide Chemistry and Synthesis: From Solution to Solid State
* Provides a comprehensive introduction to the synthesis of finely divided materials
* Presents the chemistry, physics and applications of these materials
* Builds a bridge between classical solution chemistry and new developments in solid state chemistry
* Introduces an important new area in inorganic chemistry
Part I examines the mechanism of condensation of aqueous cations leading to polynuclear species or lattices, and rationalizes the behaviour of cations in precipitation phenomena by identifying pathways from soluble species to solids. The cation complex is also analysed in relation to the synthesis of some technologically interesting polymetallic oxides, e.g. ferroelectric, ferrimagnetic and supraconductor materials.
Part II is devoted to the surface chemistry of oxide particles. The basic concepts relating to the reactivity of the oxide-solution interface are introduced and applied to various adsorption phenomena, such as aggregation, stability of particle size against ripening, etc. These properties are exploited for the synthesis of nanomaterials for a broad range of applictions such as ceramic powders, catalysts and nanocomposites. This will also be of interest to those wishing to understand geochemical and some biological processes.
As well as being invaluable to researchers and postgraduate students of inorganic chemistry, this book will also be appreciated by solid-state chemists, materials scientists and colloid chemists with an interest in metal oxides.
- Metal Oxide Chemistry and Synthesis From Solution to Solid State
|Electronic Processes on Semiconductor Surfaces during Chemisorption
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Author: T. Wolkenstein
Brand: T Wolkenstein
"Hands are useless if there are no eyes to see what is obvious." -M. V. Lomonosov Dear Reader, I invite you to open this book and step on the semiconductor surface, where the processes that form the subject of the book come into play. The surface of the semiconductor is attracting more and more interest among researchers, in fact researchers in two different fields. These are notably the physicists and engineers engaged in research in semi conductor physics and the making of semiconductor devices. The entire industry of semiconductor instruments hinges on the problem of the surface. The quality of semiconductor devices, whose use is growing steadily, depends essentially on the properties of the surface. The instability of these properties and their uncon trollable alterations with temperature and under the influence of environmental conditions result in a lack of stability in the performance of semiconductor devices, hence the high percentage of waste in their industrial production. The methods used in factory laboratories to prevent such waste are largely empirical. The properties of the surface, the nature of the physicochemical processes that take place on it, and the role of environmental factors still remain obscure. A major task of the semiconductor industry is to learn to control the properties of the surface.
- Electronic Processes on Semiconductor Surfaces During Chemisorption
|The Chemical Physics of Surfaces
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Author: S.R. Morrison
Brand: S Roy Morrison
of available information. Even more importantly, some authors who have contributed substantially to an area may have been overlooked. For this I apologize. I have, however, not attempted to trace techniques or observa tions historically, so there is no implication (unless specified) that the authors referred to were or were not the originators of a given method or observation. I would like to acknowledge discussions with co-workers at SFU for input relative to their specialties, to acknowledge the help of students who have pointed out errors and difficulties in the earlier presentation, and to acknowledge the infinite patience of my wife Phyllis while I spent my sabbatical and more in libraries and punching computers. S. Roy Morrison 0 1 Contents Notation XV 1. Introduction 1 1. 1. Surface States and Surface Sites . 1 1. 1. 1. The Chemical versus Electronic Representation of the Surface. 1 1. 1. 2. The Surface State on the Band Diagram 4 1. 1. 3. The Fermi Energy in the Surface State Model. 6 1. 1. 4. Need for Both Surface Site and Surface State Models 6 1. 2. Bonding of Foreign Species to the Solid Surface 7 1. 2. 1. Types of Interaction. 7 1. 2. 2. The Chemical Bond . 10 1. 2. 3. Acid and Basic Surface Sites on Solids . 13 1. 2. 4. Adsorbate Bonding on Various Solid Types. 16 1. 2. 5. Movement of Surface Atoms: Relaxation, Reconstruction, and Relocation .
- The Chemical Physics Of Surfaces
|Surface Characterization: A User's Sourcebook
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"Surface Characterization" provides an authoritative guide to the wide range of powerful techniques that are used to characterize the surfaces of materials. Practical in approach, it not only describes the major analytical techniques but emphasizes how they can be used to solve a multitude of chemical and physical problems. A special feature of the book is that the various techniques are grouped according to the material property under investigation. These parts are preceded by an overview comparing the capabilities of the characterization methods available.
Extensive data tables allow the reader to assess rapidly the strengths as well as the pitfalls inherent in each method.
Chapters on chemical composition, optical and crystallographic properties, microtopography, surface processes, tribological, electrical and magnetic properties of surface films are featured. In addition, chapters specializing on applications within the life sciences on the microscopic scale and chemometrics are included.
"Surface Characterization" is addressed to both academic and industrial audiences. Scientists and engineers working on the production and development of new materials will find it an invaluable reference source. Physicist, chemists, chemical engineers, material scientists and engineers from every area of materials research will benefit from the wealth of practical advice the book provides.
|Demonstrating Science with Soap Films
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Brand: David Lovett
Many of us have been fascinated as children by soap bubbles and soap films. Their shapes and colours are beautiful and they are great fun to pay with. With no les intensity, scientists and mathematicians have been interested in the properties of bubbles and films throughout scientific history.
In this book David Lovett describes the properties of soap films and soap bubbles. He then uses their properties to illustrate and elucidate a wide range of physical principles and scientific phenomena in a way that unifies different concepts. The book will appeal not only to students and teachers at school and university but also to readers with a general scientific interest and to researchers studying soap films.
For the most part simple school mathematics is used. Sections containing more advanced mathematics have been placed in boxes or appendices and can be omitted by readers without the appropriate mathematical background.
The text is supported with
* Over 100 diagrams and photgraphs.
* Details of practical experiments that can be performed using simple household materials.
* Computer programs that draw some of the more complicated figures or animate sequences of soap film configurations.
* A bibliography for readers wishing to delve further into the subject.
David Lovett is a lecturer in physics at the University of Essex. His research interests include Langmiur-Blodgett thin films and the use of models as teaching aids in physics. He has been interested in soap films since 1978 and has made a number of original contributions to the subject, particularly in the use of models which change their dimensions and their analogy with phase transitions. He has published three other books including ITensor Properties of Crystals (Institute of Physics Publishing 1989).
John Tilley is also a lecturer in physics at the University of Essex with research interests in theoretical solid-state physics and soap films. He is coauthor of Superfluidity and Superconductivity (Institute of Physics Publishing, 3rd edition, 1990).
- Demonstrating Science With Soap Films
|Large and Middle-scale Aperture Aspheric Surfaces: Lapping, Polishing and Measurement
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Author: Shengyi Li
A complete all-in-one reference to aspheric fabrication and testing for optical applications
This book provides a detailed introduction to the manufacturing and measurement technologies in aspheric fabrication. For each technology, both basic theory and practical applications are introduced.
The book consists of two parts. In the first part, the basic principles of manufacturing technology for aspheric surfaces and key theory for deterministic subaperture polishing of aspheric surfaces are discussed. Then key techniques for high precision figuring such as CCOS with small polishing pad, IBF and MRF, are introduced, including the basic principles, theories and applications, mathematical modeling methods, machine design and process parameter selection. It also includes engineering practices and experimental results, based on the three kinds of polishing tools (CCOS, IBF and MRF) developed by the author’s research team.
In the second part, basic principles of measurement and some typical examples for large and middle-scale aspheric surfaces are discussed. Then, according to the demands of low cost, high accuracy and in-situ measurement methods in the manufacturing process, three kinds of technologies are introduced, such as the Cartesian and swing-arm polar coordinate profilometer, the sub-aperture stitching interferometer and the phase retrieval method based on diffraction principle. Some key techniques are also discussed, including the basic principles, mathematical modeling methods, machine design and process parameter selection, as well as engineering practices and experimental results. Finally, the team’s research results about subsurface quality measurement and guarantee methods are also described.
This book can be used as a reference for scientists and technologists working in optical manufacturing, ultra-precision machining, precision instruments and measurement, and other precision engineering fields.
- A complete all-in-one reference to aspheric fabrication and testing for optical applications
- Presents the latest research findings from the author’s internationally recognized leading team who are at the cutting edge of the technology
- Brings together surface processing and measurement in one complete volume, discussing problems and solutions
- Guides the reader from an introductory overview through to more advanced and sophisticated techniques of metrology and manufacturing, suitable for the student and the industry professional
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